Wednesday, May 23, 2007

  • GALDER (Halder) (Halder) Frants (1884-1972), the german general - colonel (1940). In 1938-42 chief of a General Staff of a land forces, supervised over development of plans of fascist aggression. It is dismissed in connection with failures on Eastern front and dissents with Gitlerom.
  • GALEGOS (Gallegos) Romulo (1884-1969), the Venezuelan writer, the president of Venezuela in 1947-48. With 1941 one of leaders of a consignment " Democratic action ". Realistic social novels "Donja Barbara" (1929), "Kanajma" (1935), " the Straw on a wind " (1952).
  • The SHINGLE, the round rock wastes a dia of 1-10 sm rolled by a running water or sea waves.
  • GALPERIN Peter Jakovlevich (1902-89), the Russian psychologist, the doctor of pedagogical sciences (1965), the professor (1966). The writer of the theory of installment formation of the mental actions, a uncovering fundamentals of mastering of knowledge in uchebno-pedagogical process. Transactionses on a methodology of psychology and age psychology.
  • GALPERIN Jury Aleksandrovich (r. 1947), the Russian writer. With 1979 in Switzerland. In stories (" Most in a Summer ", 1982, " we Play a blues ", 1983) and novels (" Russian version ", 1987) reverts to social - psychologic problems.
  • GALS Ô., see F.
  • GALTON (Golton) (Galton) Frensis (1822-1911), the English psychologist and the anthropologist. One of creators of a biometry, differential psychology, a method of tests, eugenicses. Tolerated on a human society biological laws (a struggle for life, a natural selection).
  • GALFRID (Dzheffri) MONMUTSKY (?-1154), the English writer. Wrote in latin tongue. The writer of the chronicle " the History brittov " (between 1132 and 1137) and a fantastic poem " Life Merlina " (ok. 1148).
  • GALHEPIGGEN (Galdhîpiggen), the highest top of the Scandinavian in Norway (2469 ì). Icehouses.
  • GALTSIONA, see. Keik.
  • GALSHTATSKAJA CROP (in archeology), the early Iron Age (ok. 900-400 up to n. e.) in JUzh. And Compare. To Europe. It is called on. Galshtat (Hallstatt) in Austria. Residues of settlements, burials, mines. Carriers galshtatskoj crops primarily illirijtsy and kelty. An economy: agriculture, cattle breeding, metallurgy.
  • DIN (Gum) Kolin (1924-60), the australian astronomer. Has discovered huge issuing nebulosity (" Nebulosity Gama-grass ") in Austral hemisphere with angular a dia about 40 °, derivated by a relict flash of a nova in mia maid of the Flag.
  • GAMA-GRASS (Gama) Vasko yes (1469-1524), the Portuguese seafarer. In 1497-99 has committed float from Lisbon to India, having bent Africa, and back, for the first time having built a shipping lane from Europe in JUzh. Asia. In 1502-03 and 1524 has committed 2 more floats to India.
  • GAMA-GRASS (da Gama), Vasko yes (1469, Sinish, Portugal on December,-24 1524, Kochin, India), the Portuguese seafarer, the pioneer marine ways around of Africa to India. The first expedition Pullet court a notable origin, daredevil Vasko yes Gama-grass has headed in 1497 first expedition from three ships ("Dignity - Gabriel", "Dignity - Rafael" and "Berriu") and a transport vessel which king of Portugal for discovering marine has equipped ways from Europe to India. The crew of courts totalled ok. 170 person. Having departed on July, 8 from Lisbon, after four months of float Portugueses have stayed in bay Sent-Helina, having convinced, that during 4200 kms there are no the considerable grounds and large islands. Having rounded a cape Needle, Gama-grass has approached to a high coast called as him Natal ("Christmas"). On the ways north-up expedition was intercepted in ostiums of the rivers of Limpopo and Zambezi, in ports Mozambique, Mombasa and Malindi where the aboriginal governor has given Portugueses of safety escort pilot Ahmed ibn Madzhida. With a way monsoon expedition has reached an indian port Calicut (nowadays Kozhikode). There it was possible to acquire a few spicery and precious stones. Soon Gama-grass has informed samorinu (to the aboriginal governor) on the fast departure and has asked in subarches to king about polutonny koritsy and pinks. Samorin has required the major duty on spicery and at once has forbidden to transport on court of the Portugueses who have stayed on coast. In the meantime numerous town-dwellers kept with curiosity to examine the ships. When Gama-grass has learned, that among them there are notable faces, he has trapped them, having offered samorinu to interchange hostages for the seamen. Portugueses have delivered to the ships, but Gama-grass has released only a part of hostages, obeshchav to release remaining after return of the locked goods. The answer has not followed, and expedition has abandoned Calicut with hostages onboard. In January 1499 seafarer has reached port Malindi where has received fresh products for ill a scurvy of seamen. Bliz Mombasa Gama-grass has burnt "Dignity - Rafael", t. To. Hardly thinned command could not steer four ships. In Lisbon there came only two vessels. In alive remained less than half of crew. But on a map than 4000 kms of eastern shore of Africa from river mouth Grejt-Fish up to port Malindi have been marked more. First expedition Vasko yes the Gama-grass, for the first time builded a marine trade path from Europe through Africa to India, fell into to epoch of Great geographycal discoverings and had world value. The second expedition the Second float to India in the chapter of a flotilla from 20 ships Vasko yes Gama-grass has committed in 1502, having exhibited unprecedented devilry and cruelty in relation to local population. He has burnt a command and 400 passengers of an Arabian vessel (dou) in area of Malabar coast, has suppressed resistance of aboriginal masters, has broken Calicut and with freight of spicery of huge value has returned home in October 1503. He has received a title the column yes Vidiguejra, but on many flying has been discharged of any activity. The third expedition In 1524 Vasko yes Gama-grass has been appointed as viceroy of India where he has departed to the third traveling and where has soon died. His ashes have been forwarded to Portugal in 1538.
  • GAMADRIAD, the same, that a royal cobra. See. Cobras.
  • GAMADRIL (plashchenosnyj a baboon), the monkey of a stem of baboons. The length of a body of 75-80 sm, samki is twice less. For samtsov the lengthy mane (mantle) is developed. In open countries of Africa (Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia) and Asia (Arabian p-ov). Gamadrilov often contain in zoological gardens, use as laboratory animal.
  • GAMAZOVYE MITES, group of mites (ok. 20 sets) order parazitiformnyh. The body, length 0,2-2 mm, is coated shchitkami. 3-4 thousand kinds. The majority - predators (eat small-sized Invertebrata), some - parasites kowtowing, birds, mammals and carriers of causal organisms of a sapropyra, a plague and other contagions.
  • HAMMOCK (from frants. hamac), pendant, wum by the way networks to a box. Originally - for Indians of tropical forests JUzh. America. Has received world distribution.
  • GAMALEJ Jury Vladimirovich (r. 1939), the Russian biochemist and the physiologist of plants, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Probes of structurally functional features of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants; activities on biochemistry of the transport of substances for plants.
  • No comments: