Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GEOCHEMICAL BALANCE, correspondence between mass of the substance proceeding for all geologic history in World ok. As a result of destruction of eruptive rocks by processes of a weathering and erosion, and quantity of the substance encased in sedimentary rocks and dissolved in ocean water. The geochemical balance can be constituted as well for separate chemical elements.
  • GEOCHEMISTRY, the science investigator chemical composition of the Earth, prevalence in her of chemical elements and their stable isotopes, regularity of distribution of chemical elements in different geospheres, laws of conduct, combination and migration (concentration and dissipation) elements in natural processes. The term "geochemistry" is entered by K.F.Shenbejnom in 1838. Founders of a geochemistry - V.I.Vernadsky, V.M.Goldshmidt, A.E.Fersman; the first large report on a geochemistry (1908) belongs to F.U.Clark (USA). The geochemistry actuates: an analytical geochemistry, a physical geochemistry, a geochemistry of a lithosphere, a geochemistry of processes, a regional geochemistry, a hydrogeochemistry, a radiogeochemistry, an isotope geochemistry, radiogeochronology, biogeochemistry, an organic geochemistry, landscape geochemistry, a geochemistry of lithogenesis. A geochemistry - one of fundamental theory of searches of mineral wealths.
  • LANDSCAPE GEOCHEMISTRY, section of a geochemistry and the physical geography, investigator chemical composition and migration of chemical elements in geographycal landscapes.
  • GEOCHEMISTRY of LITHOGENESIS, the section of a geochemistry investigator chemical composition and physico-chemical conditions of formation of sedimental rocks and ores, their evolution during a geologic history, a prevalence of chemical elements in sedimentary rocks and a hydrosphere, regularities of conduct, distribution and migration of chemical elements and their associations during sedimentation, diagenesis of a rainfall and an epigenesis.
  • GEOCHRONOLOGY (from geo... And chronology) (geologic letoschislenie), the doctrine about chronological sequence of formation and age of the rocks composing earth crust. Distinguish relative and absolute (or nuclear) geochronology. The relative geochronology uses a principle of sequence of a stratification of rocks; it is established t. n. A stratum scale with subdividings - eonotema, eratema, etc. which forms the basis for building a geochronological scale (sequence of intervals of time) with the conforming subdividings - eon, era, the season, etc. (see the table). For the absolute geochronology estimated in thousand and millions a flying and establishing radiometric age, the radioactive decay of some elements which goes with constant speed is used and does not vary under influence of environmental conditions. The absolute geochronology is offered in nach. 20 century. P.Kjuri and E.Rezerfordom. Depending on end - products of disintegration secrete leaden, helium, argon, calcium, strontium and other methods of absolute geochronology, and also radiocarbon (on 14Ñ).
  • GEOCENTRIC CONCEPTION of the WORLD (Ptolemeeva world system), arisen in ancient greek science and antropocentric submission kept down to a serotinal Middle Ages about a central rule of the Earth in the Universe. According to a geocentric conception of the world, a planet, the Sun and other heavenly bodies revert around of the Earth on the orbits presenting the composite combination of circular orbits (see. Deferent and the Epicycle). The geocentric conception of the world was replaced with heliocentric world system).
  • GEOCENTRIC COORDINATES, coordinate system in which a rule of heavenly bodies determine concerning the centre of the Earth.
  • HEPARINUM, the polysaccharide derivated by residues of a glucuronic acid and a glucosamine; it is contained in extracellular substance of a liver, lungs, arterial walls. A component t. n. Anticoagulative system of blood. It is applied as an anticoagulative means at fibrinferments, a blood transfusion.
  • HEPATITIS (from grech. hepar, a stem. Item hepatos - a liver), group of inflammatory diseases of a liver zymotic (napr., a hepatitis virus) or zymotic (napr., at poisonings) a nature for the person and animal. Violations of function of a liver at an acute hepatitis often are accompanied by yellows. The chronic hepatitis can reduce in development of a hepatic cirrhosis.
  • HEPATITIS VIRUS, an acute virus infection of the person with a defeat of a liver (yellows). Actuates 2 do-it-yourself forms. At a zymotic (epidemic) hepatitis (a hepatitis And, an infectious disease) infection from ill or a virus vector predominary through companies (with water, nutrition, etc.); prophylaxis - a public health measure (the same, that at a dysentery), an immunization a gamma-globulin. At a wheyish hepatitis (hepatitis Â) infection through medical instruments or at a blood transfusion of ill (virus vector); prophylaxis - a sterilization of instruments, a health control for donors.
  • HEPATOLIENAL SET OF SYMPTOMS, simultaneous or serial defeat of a liver and spleen with their increase at some zymotic and other diseases.
  • GEPATOHOLETSISTIT, a simultaneous inflammation of a liver (hepatitis) and a gall bladder (cholecystitis).
  • GEPATO-CEREBRAL DYSTROPHIA, chronic hereditary disease at which the hepatic cirrhosis and organic changes in a brain develop. In the basis of a gepato-cerebral dystrophia - violation of synthesis of proteins and an exchange of copper. Shows a pathology of a digestive organs, krovotochivostju, propulsion distresses, etc.
  • GEPPERT-MAJER (Goeppert-Mayer) Maria (1906-72), American physics. Transactionses on static and a quantum mechanics, a nuclear physics. One of writers of a shell model of an atomic kernel. The Nobel Prize (1963, together with J.Jensenom).
  • HEPTANE, CH3 (CH2) 5 CH3, a colourless liquid, têèï 98,43 °S. It is contained in petroleum. The etalon at definition of knock value of engine fuels (see. An octane number).
  • GEPTATONIKA, see. Diatonika.
  • HEPTODE [from grech. hepta - seven and (elektr) odes], an electron tube having 7 electrodes; the cathode, the anode and 5 grids (2 - control, 2 - shielding, 1 - protective, or antidynatron). It is used primarily for transformation and mixture of high frequency of electrical oscillations, napr., in superhet radio receivers.
  • GERA, in the Grecian mythology queen of gods, the sister and wife Zevsa; the patroness of spoilage. Differs authoritativeness, cruelty and jealous temper. To her corresponds Roman JUnona.
  • GERA (Gera), city in Germany, ground Thuringia, 128 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry, sewing, rezinotehnicheskaja an industry.
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