Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GERASIMOV Jacob Ivanovich (1903-83), Russian fizikohimik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main transactionses on thermodynamics of alloys colour and rare metals. The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • GERASIMOVICH Boris Petrovich (1889-1937), the Russian astronomer. The main transactionses on probe of asters, epicyclic fogs, interstellar medium. With 1933 director Pulkovskoj of an observatory. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • HERAT, city in northwest of Afghanistan, an administrative centre prov. Herat. 177,3 thousand inhabitants (1988). The textile, alimentary enterprises. Handicraft industries (tissues, carpets). The grounding of Herat is attributed Alexander the Great. Was part of the ancient and medieval states Compare. The orient. The greatest bloom in 15 century. In 19 century - the centre of the principality because of which extirpation between Afghanistan and Iran was led, and also between the Great Britain and Iran (t. n. Geratskie conflicts 1837-42 and 1851-63). In 1863 it is finally adjoined to Afghanistan. A cathedral mosque (13-20 centuries). To northwest from Herat - grandiose architectural ensemble Musalla (1417-38).
  • GERATSKAJA the SCHOOL of a miniature, existed in 15 century in Herat (artists Kemaleddin Behzad, Kasim Ali). To products Geratskoj of school (a case history of manuscripts) the refined decorative effect, poetry, harmony and refinement of colour, precise masterly drawing, a great skill of a composition are peculiar.
  • GERATSI Mhitar (12-13 centuries), the Armenian doctor. The main transactionses: " Anatomy of an eye " and " Comfort at fevers " (are dedicated a zymotic pathology).
  • GERASHCHENKO Victor Vladimirovich (r. 1937), the Russian financier. With 1982 vice-president of a bank directors of foreign trade activities of the USSR. With 1989 chairman of board of the National bank of the USSR. In 1992-94 chairman of board of the Central bank of Russia.
  • The ARMS STATE, the official emblem of the state figured on seales, forms of state organs, token moneys, etc. Often is a constituent part of a national flag.
  • HERBARIUM (an armour. herbarium, from herba - a grass, a plant), a collection of specially gathered and dried plants, and also establishment in which she remains deposited. Plants for a herbarium are installed on leafs of a bonded area paper, with the indicating of a specific name, the title of a place and date of the tax. Herbariums can be general (a collection of plants of fixed terrains) and special (collections of alimentary, technical, medicinal and other plants). The first herbariums are built in Renaissance, in Russia - in nach. 18 century. In the world ok. 500 large herbariums in which remain deposited over 300000 kinds of plants. The largest herbariums in Botanical to a garden in Kju (Great Britain) - over 6 million leafs, in Botanical institute of the Russian Academy of Science (Saint Petersburg) - over 5 million leafs.
  • GERBART (Herbart) (Herbart) Iogann Fridrih (1776-1841), the german philosopher, the psychologist and the teacher, the founder of school in german pedagogics of 19 century. The representative of pluralism: in the basis of the world - flock of invariable "reals". Attempted to construct psychology as regular science, founded on a metaphysics, experience and mathematics. Has put forward a conception 4 stages (principles) of education (clearness, association, system, a method). The founder t. n. A formal aesthetics (a source perfect - a symmetry, proportions, a rhythm, etc.).
  • GERBEL Nikolay Vasiljevich (1827-83), the Russian poet, a translator, the publisher. Transfers of products of U.Shakespeare, Dzh. G.Byron, P.B.Shelli, I.V.Gete, slavonic poets (including. T.G.Shevchenko, I.P.Kotlyarevsky, A.Mickiewicz), etc., " Words about shelf Igoreve ". The issuing of anthologies of Russian transfers, collected works of speaking another language writers.
  • GERBERA, stem of perennial grasses of a set of a thistle family. Ok. 70 kinds, in Africa and Asia. Grades with flowers of the different colour, recalling krupnotsvetnuju a camomile, use in a commercial flower growing.
  • GERBERT from Orijaka, see. Silvestr II.
  • GERBERSHTEJN (Herberstein) Zigmund a background (1486-1566), the german diplomat. Has visited Russia in 1517, 1526. The writer " Notes about moskovitskih affairs ".
  • HERBICIDES (from an armour. herba - a grass and caedo - I kill), chemical drugs from group of pesticides for destruction undesirable, primarily weedy, vegetation; actuate arboricides and algicides. Contact herbicides strike all kinds of plants (are used around of industrial targets, on aerodromes, under electric mains, etc.), selective - erase one kinds, napr., weeds, also do not damage cultivated plants. Apply in an agriculture to chemical weeding on fields, in gardens, vineyards, etc. Introduce to soil, carry out a dusting and spraying. Use of herbicides in many countries specified by the law. Misapplication of them can contaminate soil and water reservoirs, to call death of plants and animal, to infringe biocommunications in biogeocenoses.
  • STAMP MARKS, forms for drawing up of some financial documents (bills, check plots, etc.), and also special marks, selling which the state levies a stamp duty.
  • STAMP DUTY, the state tax levied from separate persons and organizations at a confirming paper work under civil-law bargains. In the USSR collection of a stamp duty is cancelled with 1930 with introduction of a unified State Tax (with 1942 - a State Tax). With 1991 in the Russian Federation the stamp duty on securities tradings is levied.
  • GERVEG (Herwegh) George (1817-75), the german revolutionary-democratic poet and the publicist. Call-up to action (the collection " Verses of the alive person ", 1841), political activity of the poet (a poem "Consignment", 1842).
  • GERVINUS (Gervinus) George Gottfried (1805-71), the german historian of a liberal direction, the literary critic (the representative of cultural - historical school). In transactionses on a history of Europe 1815-1848 criticized reactionary system Metterniha, sympathetically wrote about liberation movements.
  • GERGEJ (Gergely) SHandor (1896-1966), the Hungarian writer. Roman " something is plotted " (1931) about underground activity of communists, the trilogy " Djerd Dozha " (1936-54) about country war 1514.
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