Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GERMANDADY, see. Ermandady.
  • GERMANIZMY, words and the expressions borrowed from the German tongues, primarily german tongue ("stool", "camp", "chancellor", "fair", etc.), or derivated on models of the German words and expressions ("to look" on a sample the nem. aussehen).
  • GERMANIK (Germanicus) (15 up to n. e. - 19 n. e.), the Roman commander, the consul in 12 n. e. Participat in 7-9 n. e. In depressing antiRoman revolt in Pannonii, in 11 - in marchings for Rhein; at 14-16 headed new marchings for Rhein and has defeated the German nations led by Arminius.
  • GERMANISTIKA, set of the scientific disciplines investigator tongues, literatures, a history, material and spiritual crop germanojazychnyh peoples. More often the term is used in value of science about the modern both ancient German tongues and dialects, and also about literatures.
  • GERMANIUM (Deutschland), Federative Republic Germany (Germany) (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), the state in Center. To Europe, it is washed against Boreal and Baltic by seas. 357 thousand êì2. The population 81,2 million person (1993); over 90 % - Germans. A urban population over 85 %. The official language - german. Among believers - protesters (lutherans, over 50 %) and roman catholics. Germany - federation, in its structure of 16 grounds. The chief of state - the president; the head of government - the federal chancellor. The body of legislation - the Bundestag, organs of representation of grounds - the Bundesrat. Capital - Berlin, a residence of the president; a residence of government and the Bundestag - Bonn (in 1991 the solution on transfer of government and the Bundestag to Berlin up to 2000 is accepted). In a north - Severo-German nizm. With hills and lakes, to the south - high grounds and srednevysotnye mountains (the Rhine Shaly mountains, Schwarzwald, Thuringian Forest, Harz, Erzgebirge), alternating to a plateau and plains. In the south - spurs of a mountain of the Alpes an altitude up to 2963 m (. TSugshpittse). A climate moderate, transient from marine to continental. Mean temperatures of January on plains from 0 up to-3 °S, in mountains up to-5 °S, July accordingly 16-20 °S, 12-14 °S. A rainfall 500 - 800 mm annually, in mountains 1000 - 2000 mm. The large rivers - Rhein, Weser, Elba, Oder. In the south - Bodenskoe an eskar. Ok. 30 % of terrain are occupied in woods. National parks - the Bavarian Wood, Berhtesgaden; numerous wildlife reserves, natural sanctuaries. In an antiquity in terrain of Germany germen lived. The breeding unions alemannov, bavarov, tjuringov, saxophones, etc. have been included in 6-8 centuries in the state Frankskoe. As a result of his unit (843) the kingdom on the basis of which it was formed in 10 century rannefeodalnoe a kingdom of Germany has been built East - Frankskoe. In 962 with seizure by the German king Ottonom I the Sowing. And Compare. Italy " Sacred Roman empire " (up to 1806) was formed. In 10-15 centuries. The part of grounds of slavs and Baltic peoples has been seized. Reformatsija, Country war 1524-26, and also Thirty-year war 1618-48 have strengthened decentralising the Germany which actually has broken on the separate states (principality). In 18 century Austria and Prussia have raised. They participat in wars kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries against revolution, and then napoleonic France also have been routed by Napoleon I (1806). In built by the solution of the Austrian congress 1814-15 German union Austria to dominated. In 1848-49 there was a revolution (has sufferred a defeat). Association of Germany (Bismarck) has been carried out "from above" (without Austria); his major stages: building (after victory of Prussia in avstro-Prussian war 1866) Severogermanskogo Soyuz (1867) and professing after ex - Prussian war 1870-71 German empires (1871). In 1875 the unified Social-democratic party is built. In 1914 Germany has untied 1-¯ world war during which the military unit headed by Germany (germano-Austrian) has sufferred a defeat. Germany has signed the Versailles peace treaty 1919. November revolution 1918 has reduced in an overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of republic (t. n. The Weimar republic). In 1933 in Germany fascist dictatorship is established led by Gitlerom. Germany has trapped Austria (1938), Czechoslovakia (1938-39), has untied 2-¯ world war, on June, 22 1941 has attacked the USSR. On May, 8 1945 fascist Germany routed by an antihitlerite coalition at a main role of the USSR, unconditionally capitulated. The terrain of Germany separated into the Soviet, American, English and French zones of occupation. Principles of the post-war device of Germany - its demilitarization, denazification, democratization - have been determined by the Berlin conference 1945. In September 1949 the West-German state - Federative Republic of Germany has been built. In October 1949 in eastern part of Germany building the German Democratic Republic is professed. The season of partite existence of two sovereign German states kept till October on September, 1990.12 1990 in Moscow the Agreement for final settlement is signed concerning Germany. According to adopted with National chamber of GDR (the supreme body of the government) the solution on October, 3 1990 GDRs has joined Germany, in outcome the unified German state was formed. For an authority (with 1982) kaolitsija consignments HDS/HSS and Loose democratic party (SvDP). Germany - highly-developed industrial country. In structure of a runway (1992) lobe of an industry and constructions compounds 33,6 %, village and a forestry over 2 %. Production brown (1 place in the world) and mineral coal, petroleum, a natural gas, complex ores, potassium and cooking salts. Manufacture of the electric power, primarily on heat power-stations (ok. 1/4 on atomic power station). Black and nonferrous machine industry, a diverse machine industry: machine-tool construction, the electrical engineer and radio electronics, priboro-, the automobile, shipbuilding, etc. Potent chemical and a petrochemical industry. The flavoring industry, production from porcelain, musical instruments are developed wood-working, mild. A high-intensity agriculture with predominance of branches of animal husbandry (a swine breeding and a dairy husbandry). The plant growing specializes on manufacture of a grain (wheat, barley, etc.), Sugar-beet, a potato. A hop growing. Wine-making. Fishery. Length (1991, one thousand in km): railways 91,4, motorways 496,6. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 5,6 million t deadweight (1992). Main seaports: Hamburg, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Wilhelmshaven, Lubek, Rostock - Varnemjunde. Export: machines, the equipment, chemical products, items of a light industry. The main foreign trade partners - countries of European Economic Community, the USA, Russia. Monetary unit - deutsche mark.
  • GERMANIUM DIOXIDE, GeO2, colourless crystals; tïë 1115 °S. A component of ceramics, enamels and special glasses (a high refractivity and transparence for IK-rays). A perspective material for a fiber optics.
  • GERMANO-ITALIAN AGREEMENT 1939, t. n. " The steel pact ", is signed in Berlin on May, 22; has finished education of the political-military unit of fascist Germany and Italy.
  • GERMANOSHVEJTSARTSY, people in Switzerland (4,22 million person, 1992). Live also in the USA (200 thousand person), Germany, Canada, the Great Britain, France, etc. The Aggregate number 4,58 million person. Tongue - the Swiss version of german tongue. Believers - calvinists, a part roman catholics.
  • The GERMAN EASTERN AFRICA, the title of the German colony in Vost. To Africa in 1891-1919. The German eastern Africa included terrains of the modern Burundis, Ruanda, a large part of Tanzania (Tanganyika).
  • The GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (Deutsche Demokratische Republik), GDR, the state in Center. To Europe (existed till October, 3 1990). GDR was formed in terrain of Eastern Germany on October, 7 1949; the president had been selected V.Pik, one of two (alongside with O.Grotevolem) chairmen of the Socialist unified consignment of Germany (SEPG; it is derivated in 1946). In the autumn 1989 in GDR there was an acute political crisis. In outcome guiding SEPG has quitted for demission (in February 1990 SEPG it is converted to the Consignment of democratic socialism). The new government started intensive negotiations with government of Germany on the German association. In May and August 1990 two state agreements keeping conditions of apposition of GDR to Germany are signed. On September, 12 in Moscow the Agreement for final settlement is signed concerning Germany which contains solutions on all complex of problems of the German unity. According to the solution of National chamber of GDR (the supreme body of the government) on October, 3 1990 GDRs has joined Germany, in outcome the unified German state was formed.
  • The GERMAN TONGUES, group of the affine tongues relating to indoevropejskoj to family of tongues. Vostochnogermanskie: gothic and some other classic languages; Scandinavian, or severogermanskie: Swedish, danish, Norwegian, iceland, farersky tongues; West-German: English, german, a yiddish, Netherlands, frizsky tongues, afrikaans.
  • The GERMAN UNION, association of the German states under hegemony Austrian Gabsburgov, built (in structure of 39 states) on June, 8 1815 on the Austrian congress; it is liquidated after rout of Austria in war 1866 with Prussia (to 1866 he included 32 states).
  • GERMEN, ancient nations indoevropejskoj the tongue group, lived by 1 century up to n. e. Between Boreal and Baltic seas, Rhein, Danube and Vistula and in JUzh. Scandinavia. Main occupations - agriculture and cattle breeding. Lived a generic formation, which in first eyelid n. e. Was in a stage of decomposition. 4-6 centuries have played the main part in t. n. Great resettlement of peoples, have trapped large part Zap. Roman empire, having formed a number of kingdoms - vestgotov, vandals, ostgotov, burgundov, francs, langobardov.
  • HERMAPHRODITE, in the Grecian mythology the son of Hermes and the Aphrodite, the young man of unusual beauty. At the request of nymph Salmakidy, it is passionate and meekly in love in the Hermaphrodite, gods have drained her from nymas in one bisexual entity.
  • GERMASHEVSKY (Hermaszewski) Miroslav (r. 1941), an astronaut of Poland, the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1978). The first citizen of Poland making flight in cosmos. Flight on "Soyuz - 30" and orbital station " Salute - 6 " (June - July 1978).
  • HERMENEUTICS (from grech. hermeneutikos - articulating, istolkovyvajushchy), art of explanation of texts (a classical antiquity, the Bible, etc.), the doctrine about principles of their interpreting; exegetics. In philosophical flows going from V.Dilteja kon. 19-20 centuries - the doctrine about "comprehension" (integrated sincere - spiritual experience) as to the methodological basis of the humanities (as against "argument" in natural sciences).
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