Wednesday, May 23, 2007

  • GEVON (dr .-èñë. producing), in the Scandinavian mythology the goddess, the bound with the myth about an origin of Zealand which ground Gevjon has exported on a team of bulls.
  • GEGAMSKY the BACKBONE (Agmagansky a backbone), in system of the Armenian mountains (Armenia), to the west from an eskar. Sevan. An altitude up to 3597 m. Mountain meadows. Lost volcanoes.
  • GEGARD, Ajrivank (arm. - the cave monastery, is based in 4 century), in a gorge r. Garni, in 40 kms to a southeast from Yerevan. A complex of monuments of the Armenian medieval architecture (12-13 centuries). Tourism.
  • GEGELLO Alexander Ivanovich (1891-1965), the Russian architect. Developed new phylums of public buildings in Saint Petersburg (the Community center him. Bitter, 1925-27, k/t "Jumbo", 1934-35), the participant of construction of Tractor street (1925-27), the Moscow circular (1937-40).
  • GEGEL (Hegel) George Wilhelm Fridrih (1770-1831), the german philosopher who has built on the objective - idealistic basis the regular theory of dialectic. Its central concept - development - is the characteristics of activity absoljuta (world spirit), his supertemporary motion in range of clear idea in a bottom-up number of more and more concrete grades (life, anything, a becoming; quality, quantity, a measure; nature, the phenomena, a real, concept, object, the idea finishing by absolute idea), his transition in otchuzhdennoe a condition inobytija - in a nature, his recurrings to itself in the person in forms of mental activity of the individual (subjective spirit), superpersonal " objective spirit " (the right, moral and "morals" - family, a civil society, the state) and " absolute spirit " (art, religion, philosophy as forms of a self-consciousness of spirit). The contravention - an internal source of the development circumscribed by the way of a triad. History - " advance of spirit in consciousness of freedom ", in succession sold through "spirit" of separate peoples. Implementation of democratic requests was thought Gegelem by the way the compromise with a class formation, within the framework of the constitutional monarchy. The main compositions: " Phenomenology of spirit ", 1807; " Science of logic ", parts 1-3, 1812-16; " the Encyclopedia of philosophical sciences ", 1817; " the Fundamentals of philosophy of law ", 1821; lectures on philosophy of a history, an aesthetics, philosophy of religion, a history of philosophy (are published posthumously).
  • HEGELIANISM, the philosophical flow starting with doctrine Gegelja and developing his ideas. Has arisen in Germany in 30-40-Õ of 19 century. In spores on religious problems were secured conservative "pravogegeljanstvo", interpreted Gegelja spirit of orthodox theism (K.Geshel, K.Daub, etc.), radical left-handed hegelianism - "mladogegeljanstvo" (A.Ruge, B.Bauer, L.Fejerbah, D.Strauss, M.Shtirner), podcherkivavshee in a balance weight gegelevskomu to " world spirit " a role of a self-consciousness of separate personalities in a history. The in-between position took "orthodox" hegelianism (K.Mihelet, K.Rozenkrants, etc.). See. Neogegeljanstvo.
  • HEGEMONY (from grech. hegemonia - leadership, domination), a guiding, a taking priority rule.
  • GEGENBAUR (Gegenbaur) Charles (1826-1903), the german zoologist, one of founders of an evolutionary direction in a comparative anatomy. Transactionses on a comparative anatomy and an embryology of vertebrates. One of first has described (1853) education of a two-layer larva (gastrula), studied reproduction and development of medusas. Has proved (1861), that eggs of vertebrates represent solitary cells. Has entered an evolutionary principle into submissions about analogous organs and homologous organs.
  • GEGESY (ok. 320 - 280 up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, the representative kirenskoj schools; a nickname " the Teacher of mors ": as against Aristippa saw the blessing not so much in enjoying, how much in absence of travail, from here a view on mors as for the good.
  • GEGECHKORI, the title of. Martvili up to 1989.
  • GED (Guesde) (an ice-film. fam. Bazil, Basile) ZHjul (1845-1922), one of osnovatelej the French Working consignment, the figure of 2-nd Internatsionala, the propagandist of marxism. One of writers of the Havre program. One of leaders SFIO (the French socialist party, it is based 1905), in premilitary years the centrist. In August 1914 - October 1915 state minister.
  • GEDA Â., see Heda Century.
  • GEDDA (Gedda) (an ice-film. fam. Ustinov) Nikolay (r. 1925), the Swedish singer (the lyrical tenor). By origin Russian. Acts at many opera theatres of the world, including in "Underground railway - opera" (New York), since 60th - also on concert platforms.
  • GODEL (Godel) Kurt (1906-78), logik and mathematician. Was born in Austria-Hungary, with 1940 in the USA. Transactionses on a mathematical logic and set theory. Has proved (1931) t. n. Theorems of an incompleteness (the theorem of Godel) from which, in particular, follows that there is no full phenomenological theory where all true theorems of arithmetic would be demonstrable.
  • HEDENBERGITE, mineral of group piroksenov, CaFe [Si2O6]. The marginal member of isomorphous lines of hedenbergites - diopside; intermediate members call sality. Impurity Mn, Fe3 +. Green up to black radiative units. Hardness 6; firmness of 3,5-3,6 g / sm3. By origin kontaktovo-metasomatichesky, hydrothermal.
  • GEDENSHTROM Matvej Matveevich (ok. 1780-1845), the Russian explorer of a north of Siberia. In 1808-10 supervised over expeditions on filming and probe of Novosibirsk islands.
  • GIDEONS Stepan Aleksandrovich (1816-78), the Russian historian, the theatrical figure, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1863). The director of the Hermitage (1863-78) and imperial theatres (1867-75). Transactionses " Variags and Russia " (against normannskoj theories).
  • GEDIKE Alexander Fedorovich (1877-1957), the Russian composer, the pianist, the organist, the national actor of Russia (1946), the doctor of art criticism (1940). The founder and the chapter domestic organnoj schools. Operas " Âèðèíåÿ " (1916), "ZHakerija" (1933) and other compositions. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1909). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • GEDIMIN (Gediminas) (Gediminas) (?-1341), grand duke Lithuanian (with 1316), brother Vitenja, has plotted a number of defeats to german knights, in the union with Tver opposed the Moscow principality, kept capture zapadnorusskih the grounds, initiated Lithuanian knjazjami in 13 century.
  • GEDIMINOVICHI, descendants of grand duke Lithuanian Gedimina. Grandson Gedimina Jagello has become the founder of Polish royal dynasty JAgellonov. In Russia - a princely branch, the second on eminence after Rjurikovichej.
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