Wednesday, May 23, 2007

  • GUAIACOL, ÑÍ3ÎÑ6Í4ÎÍ, colourless crystals, tïë 28,5 °S. Raw material in synthesis of odorous substances (a vanillin, an eugenol, santalidola).
  • GVAJAKUM (guaicum), a stem of evergreen trees about a rue family. 6 kinds, in woods of tropical America. From solid heavy wood gvajakuma sacred produce some machine components, from wood of a nucleus gvajakuma medicinal receive guaiac (rosnyj frankincense). Cultivate on islands Haiti, Dominica, in Venezuela and Columbia.
  • GVEZDOSLAV (Hviezdoslav) Pavol (1849-1921), the Slovak poet. Lyrical cycles of the patriotic and humanistic content, epicheskie poems from life of village, the anti-war collection " Bloody sonnets " (1914).
  • GVELESIANI Romanoz Nikolaevich (1859-84), the Georgian painter and the schedule. Realistic, soft portraits on the painting, finely relaying mood of the person (" the Portrait of the classmate ", 1883).
  • GVELFY AND GIBELLINY, political directions in Italy 12-15 centuries which have arisen in connection with extirpation for domination in Italy between " Sacred Roman empire " and the papacy. Gvelfy, supporting Popes, basically interests popolanov, and gibelliny, adherents of emperor, - expressed interests nobilej (znati). However during extirpation quite often orientation varied: popolany passed in camp gibellinov, nobili - gvelfov. Since 14 century in Florence and a number of other cities gvelfy were divided on black ("consignment" nobilej) and white ("consignment" of affluent town-dwellers).
  • GVERRATSTSI (Guerratstsi) (Guerrazzi) Franchesko Domeniko (1804-73), the italian writer - romantik, the figure of Revolution 1848-49. Historical novels " Battle at Benevento " (1827-28), " Osada Florence " (1836) and "Beatrice Chenchi" (1854); memoirs.
  • GWERU (Gweru), city to Zimbabwe, an administrative centre prov. Midlands. 125 thousand inhabitants (1992). A mining industry. Manufacture of ferro-alloies, cement. The enterprises flavoring and a light industry. In area Gweru - production of a nickel, gold, platinum, an asbestos.
  • GVERCHINO (Guerchino) (Guercino) (an ice-film. fam. Barbjeri, Barbieri) Franchesko (1591-1666), the italian painter. The representative of Bologna school of Baroque. Drama emotionality of modes, dynamic compositions, the restless game of light and a shade combined with tendency to the decorative effects (to paintings of country house Ludovizi in Rome, 1621).
  • GUIANA Netherlands, up to 1975 called state territories Surinams.
  • GUIANA French (Guyane), possession of France on north-east JUzh. America. 91 thousand êì2. The population of 128 thousand person (1993), primarily creoles. An administrative centre and main seaport - Cayenne. In the French parliament Guiana is submitted by 3 deputies of National assembly and 2 senators. Guiana is located on north-east of Guiana highlands. A climate subequatorial. Monthly mean temperatures in Cayenne 28-29 °S. A rainfall over 3000 mm annually. Ok. 90 % of terrain - tropical forests. An aboriginal population of Guiana - American Indian nations. The first French settlement is based on terrains of Guiana in 1604. In a crop economy Negros - slaves from Africa were maintained. With kon. 18 century. Guiana has been transformed into a place of penal servitude. With 1946 " overseas department " France. Guiana - agrarian country. Main agricultural crops: a cane, bananas, fig. Of the Timber logging. A catching of shrimps. Production of gold, bauxites. Manufacture of rum, pink essence. In area the Hen - the National centre of France on space probes, a launching site.
  • LOWLAND GVIANSKAJA, in JUzh. To America, coast-wise Atlantic ok., to a southeast from delta r. Orinoco. Ever-green forests and savannahs; bogs. Plantations of rice, a cane, cocoa.
  • GVIANSKY the BOARD, a projection dokembrijskogo the base in boreal part of the Southern - American ramp.
  • GUIANA HIGHLANDS, on north-east JUzh. America, between nizm. Orinoco and Amazonian, within the limits of Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Surinam and Guiana (French). An altitude up to 3014 m (. Neblina). The rivers with cataracts an altitude up to 1054 m (Anhel, the highest on the Earth). Ever-green forests, epines of savannahs. Large deposits iron and manganese ores, bauxites, gold, diamonds, uranium (Venezuela).
  • GVIANSKOE FLOW, warm current Atlantic ok. For north-east coasts JUzh. America, directed on northwest; a branch of Austral Trade current. Temperature of water 23-28 °S.
  • RAMTIL, the same, that a guizotia.
  • GUINEAN BAY Atlantic ok., for coasts of Equatorial Africa. 753 thousand êì2. Depth up to 5207 m. On north-east it is divided on a hall. Biafra and Benin. Islands: Bioko, Prinsipi, the Dignity - volume, etc. Primary ports: Akkra, Lome, Lagos, Libreville.
  • GUINEAN BAY the OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING BASIN, is located in Zap. To Africa. The area ok. 690 thousand êì2, including aquatory up to 500 m - 460 thousand êì2. The main oil-and-gas-bearing horizons are dated to Cretaceous and paleogene - miotsenovym to adjournments. Beginning inventories of petroleum ok. 5 billion t and gas of 3,2 bln. in m3 (1988). Is present ok. 430 deposits, mostly petroleum; main: Boma, Imo-River, Okan, It is precut (Nigeria), Emerod (Congo), Malongo (Angola).
  • GUINEAN FLOW, warm current Atlantic ok., in boreal part Guinean a hall., directed to the orient; it is bridged to the Intertrade-wind (Equatorial) counterflow in the summer.
  • GUINEA, Guinean Republic (Republique de Guinee), the state in Zap. To Africa. 246 thousand êì2. The population 7,4 million person (1993); fulbe, malinke, susu, etc. The Urban population of 25,6 % (1990). The official language - French. Believers - 85 % moslems, 1,5 % christians, remaining hold on to aboriginal traditional convictions. Administrative territorial division: 8 provinces. Capital - Conakry. The chief of state and governments - the president. Zap. A part of Guinea - bayshore lowland and a plateau Fouta Djallon, southeast - Severo-guinean vozv. (up to 1752 m of an altitude. An aureola), on north-east - plain. A climate equatorial monsoon. Monthly mean temperatures on a large part of country 18-26 °S, on a shore up to 30 °S. A rainfall from 1200 up to 4000 mm annually. The main rivers - Gambia, Bafing, Niger, Konkure. Savannah, the wet tropical forests. Reservation of the Aureola. Up to nach. 15 century. The terrain of Guinea in part entered in rannegosudarstvennye educations Ghana and Mali. In 70th of 18 century it was formed rannefeodalnoe the military - theocratical state of breeders - nomads fulbe Fouta Djallon. In 1880-90-Õ the terrain of Guinea is seized by France, in 1895 is secured in separate colony (under the title the French Guinea) which has come in French Zap. Africa. Since October 1958 independent state led by president A.S.Ture after which mors to an authority came military. In 1990 the constitution providing introduction of a multi-party system is adopted. Guinea - agrarian country with be relative developed mining industry. A lobe in a runway (1990, %): an agriculture 28, an industry 27,5 (including mining - 23,9). Main documentary agricultural crops: coffee, bananas, pineapples, an oil palm. Animal husbandry. Fishery. Production of bauxites, diamonds, gold. Manufacture of the electric power 521 million in kw? H (1991). The enterprises on a thorough revision of agricultural production; sawing, textile, velosborochnye. Length of railways (1993662 kms, motorways of 28,4 thousand in km. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet of 1749 thousand t deadweight. Main seaports: Conakry, Kamsar. Export: bauxites, an alumina (98 % of cost), diamonds, gold, production of an agriculture. The main foreign trade partners: the USA, France, Germany, Spain. Monetary unit - a franc Guinea.
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