Friday, May 11, 2007

  • The LOG PAPER, a special mode the drawn paper, is routinely produced by a typographical way: on each of Cartesian axes common logarithms of figures x and y are put aside, and then through the retrieved points are carried out direct, parallel shafts. On log paper schedules of many functions become more visual, and for functions of a kind y=axb - straight lines.
  • LOGARITHMIC CURVE, the same, that logarifmika.
  • SLIDE RULE (sliding scale), the accounting instrument for simplification of calculations with which help of the operation above figures are changed with operations above logs of these figures. It is applied at engineering and practical calculations when accuracy in 2-3 marks is sufficient.
  • The EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL, the plane curve circumscribed by a point, driving on direct which is spun about one of the points About (poles of an equiangular spiral) so, that a log of distance of a driving point from a pole varies with to an angle of rotation; the equiangular spiral traverses a baking plate to stationary values an angle? All direct, coming out of poles.
  • LOGISTIC FUNCTION, function, revertive an exponential function. The logistic function is meant y? lnx its value y, conforming to value of argument x, calls as a Napierian logarithm of figure x. The schedule of logistic function calls logarifmikoj. Logistic functions logax are considered also at the arbitrary groundings à> 0, and? 1.
  • LOGAU (Logau) Fridrih a background (1604-55), the german poet - satirist. The writer of the collection " Three thousand german epigramm " (1654).
  • LOGACHYOV Nikolay Alekseevich (r. 1929), the Russian geologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984), the chairman of Presidium of the East - Siberian branch of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Science (with 1979). Transactionses on geology and geomorphology kajnozojskih riftzones of continents. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • LOGAEDY (from grech. logaoidikos - prosaic - poetic), the meters formed by combination of unequal autopodiums (napr., dactyls and trochees) which sequence is correctly retried from a verse in a verse or from a stanza in a stanza. In metrical stihoslozhenii - a ground form antique pesennoj lyrics; in sillabo-tonic stihoslozhenii are little-used (see. A Sapphic stanza).
  • LOGVINOVICH George Vladimirovich (r. 1913), scientists - hydrodynamics, academician AN USSR (1967). With 1945 worked in a TsAGI, in 1966-71 was simultaneous the director of Institute of hydromechanics AN USSR. Taught in Moskovsk power institute (the professor with 1957), Moskovsk physicotechnical institute (with 1975). Has advanced a planing theory and submersions, the theory of foils. The premium him. N.E.Zhukovskogo (1965). The lenin premium (1978).
  • LOGEJON, at ancient greek theatre of epoch ellinizma and Roman empire an oblong site before the scene where actors whereas the chorus still remained on orhestre played.
  • LOGIC (grech. logike), science about ways of proofs and disproofs; set of scientific theories, in each of which fixed ways of proofs and disproofs are considered. The founder of logic considers Aristotel. Distinguish inductive and deductive logic, and in last - classical, intuitsionistskuju, design, modal, etc. All these theories are integrated with tendency to cataloguing such ways of reasonings which from true judgments - parcels result in true judgments - inquests; cataloguing implements, as a rule, within the framework of logic. Calculations. A special role in speedup of technological advance appendices of logic in calculus mathematics play, automata theories, linguistics, computer science, etc. See also the Mathematical logic.
  • LOGIC of EXPRESSIONS, section of logic in which the problem on a truth or falsehood of expressions is considered and decided on the basis of study of a way of construction of expressions from t. n. Elementary (further not cankered and not analyzed) expressions with the help of logic operations of a conjunction ("¿"), a disjunction ("or"), denials ("not"), implications (" if...... "), etc. The Logic of expressions assigned to system of postulates (postulates and production rules), call as a propositional calculus.
  • LOGIC of CLASSES, logic of volumes of concepts, section of logic theories in which operations above classes (flocks) and properties of these operations (laws of logic of classes) are studied.
  • LOGIC of SCIENCE, the science applying concepts and the technical apparatus of the modern logic to the analysis of systems of scientific knowledge. It was formed in 1-st chetv. 20 century. It was developed by representatives neopozitivizma. In 60th has received creative development within the framework of the modern philosophy. The term " logic of science " is used also for notation of laws of an advancement of science (logic of scientific development), regulations and procedures of scientific probe (logic of probe), the doctrine about psychologic and methodological premises of discoveries (logic of discoveries).
  • PREDICATE LOGIC, section of logic theories in which valid communications between expressions about properties and attitudes of subjects are studied; in the basis of predicate logic lays formalized a language, mapping subjective - predicate structure of expressions. See also the Predicate calculus.
  • LOGINS Eugeny Fedorovich (1907-70), the commander, marshal of aircraft (1967). During Great Domestic war was the commander of an airdivision, the commander of a long-range air corps. In 1954-59 deputy of the commander-in-chief of air force and the general - inspector of Main inspection of the Ministry of Defence (1954-59). Minister for a civil aviation of the USSR (1964-70).
  • LOGINS Michael Nikolaevich (1903-1941), the Russian designer of ammunition arms. Under his guiding it is built by 45-mm zenith marine a pappus, 45-mm anti-tank a pappus of a sample 1937 years, 76-mm semi-automatic zenith a pappus of a sample 1938 years, 85-mm zenith a pappus of a sample 1939 years, a series of a small-calibre automatic field and marine ack-ack artillery, including 45, 37 and 25-mm automatic zenith pappuses and installations. The state premium of the USSR (1941, posthumously).
  • LOGICISM, direction in the groundings of mathematics kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries, denying kantovsky the thesis about synthetic character of mathematical trues; considers mathematics as only analytical science which all concepts can be defined within the framework of deductive logic without use of any rules of not logic character. The main representatives - G.Frege, B.Russell, A.Uajthed. The thesis about " reducibilities of mathematics to logic " has appeared impracticable, at the same time the logicism promoted development of a mathematical logic.
  • The LOGIC MACHINE, the mechanic or electronic device for fulfilment of logarithmic operations: assessments and transformations of formulas, theorem proving, transformations of the information and so forth. Specialized logic machines Are developed; in the capacity of logic machines generalpurpose computers (under the conforming programs) are applied also.
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