Friday, June 8, 2007

  • BUSTAMANTE (Sanchez de Bustamante-i-Sirven, Sanchez de Bustamante y Sirven) Antonio (1865-1951), the cuban lawyer - foreign affairs specialist and the diplomat. The writer of numerous transactionses on international private law, including code Bustamante - one of most considerable regional codifications of international private law.
  • BUSTAN, city (with 1983) in Uzbekistan, Kara-Kalpak, in 70 kms from zh.-d. An item. Urgench. 9,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ginnery, etc.
  • BUSTANI (al-Bustani), family of Arabian educators in Lebanon. Are most known: 1) Butrus al-Bustani (1819-83), has based in 1847 first educational society, in 1863 - first in Lebanon national school, began the issuing of the Arabian encyclopedia... 2) Sulejman al-Bustani (1856-1925), has transferred{translated} "Illiada" Gomera to Arabian tongue.
  • BOOSTS, lake in north JAno-Indigirskoj nizm. 249 êì2. From Bustaha escapes r. Suruktah.
  • BOOSTER{ACTUATOR} (English booster), an auxiliary for increase of force and speed of action of the main{basic} mechanism or the machine (napr., 1-n a stage{step} of a multiple-step rocket, hydraulic, electrical or the air device in a control circuit control surfaces of airplanes).
  • BOOSTER PUMP, the steam-jet vacuum pump serving for building of mean air void in vacuum systems.
  • BUSTROFEDON (grech. bustrophedon, from bus - the bull and strepho - I turn), a way of the letter at which 1-n the line is written, napr., from right to left, 2-n - from left to right, 3-n - again from right to left, etc. Meets in monuments kritskogo, hettskogo, juzhnoaravijskogo, etrusskogo, Grecian and other letter.
  • BUSHAK (an ice-film. A name Fahraddin Ahmad - i-Halladzh) (?-1427), the Iranian poet, the humorist and the satirist. In parodies applied a culinary nomenclature; in a poem " the Treasury of appetite " parodies "Gulistan" Saadi.
  • ROUGH STONE, see Pavljuk P.M.
  • ROUGH STONE (Booth) William (1829-1912), the English ecclesiast, the founder and the first general of salvage - the charitable foundation which has received a wide circulation all over the world.
  • BUTADIEN (1, a 3-butadien, divinyl), CH2=CÍ-CH=CH2, colourless gas, têèï - 4,47 °S. Receive dehydrogenation of the petroleum keeping normal butane and butenes, and also from alcohol. Raw material for manufacture of synthetic rubbers.
  • BUTADIENS - BUTADIENE-NITRILE RUBBERS (divinyls - butadiene-nitrile rubbers, butadiene-nitrile rubbers, SKN, BNK), [-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-] n - [-CH2-CH (CN)-] m, synthetic polymers, products of copolymerisation of a butadien with acrylonitrile. Gums from BNK benzo-also are oil-insoluble (manufacture of cauls, conveyer belts, etc.).
  • DIVINYL RUBBERS (divinyl rubbers), products of a polymerization of a butadien. First-ever industrial synthetic rubber; it is received{obtained} in the USSR in 1932. Stereoregular divinyl rubber apply primarily in manufacture of splints (exceed splints from plant rubber on wear-resistance), not stereoregular - to manufacture, napr., kisloto-and alkaliproof gum, an ebonite.
  • STYRENE BUTADIENE RUBBERS (divinyls - styrene rubbers, styrene rubbers, SKS, BSK), [-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-] n-[-CH2-CH (C6H5)-] m, products of copolymerisation of a butadien with styrol (sometimes with?-ìåòèëñòèðîëîì). Gums from BSK are strong and wear-resistant (manufacture of auto tires, conveyer belts, rubber shoe).
  • BUTAKOV Alexey Ivanovich (1816-69), the Russian hydrograph, rear admiral (1867). Brother G.I.Butakova. The participant of round-the-world expedition 1840-42. In 1848-49 probeed Aral m., has discovered a number{series} of islands, has constituted the first hydrographic description and a map of the Aral m. (it is issued 1850).
  • BUTAKOV Grigory Ivanovich (1820-82), the Russian admiral (1878), the marine theorist. Brother A.I.Butakova. In 1867-77 Baltic fleets commanding by a squadron. Has developed a fundamentals of tactics of a steamer fleet. The writer of some proceedings.
  • BUTANE (the Kingdom Bhutan), the state in JUzh. Asia, in hard-to-reach part Vost. The Himalayas. 47 thousand êì2. The population 1,55 million person (1993); predominary bhotija. A urban population of 13 % (1985). The official language - bhotija (dzong-ke, it is close to Tibetan). State religion - the Buddhism (lamaistskogo sense). Capital - Thimphu. The chief of state - king. The body of legislation - unicameral National assembly (tsongdu). Vost. A Himalaya (an altitude up to 7554 ì) are dismembered by deans of the rivers a bass. Brahmaputra. A climate monsoon (in valleys - tropical, is higher - more cool). In valleys mean temperatures of January? 4,5 °S, July 17 °S. A rainfall from 1000 up to 5000 mm annually. Woods prevail{dominate} (deciduous, evergreen, deciduous, conifers), are higher than 3500 m - a meadow, a rock, perpetually snow. Reservations Dzhigmi-Dordzhi, Gaza, Manas. Since 19 century on 1947 Bhutan - the English protectorate. In 1949 king of Bhutan has concluded with India the agreement for special attitudes{relations} between two countries. Bhutan - agrarian country. A lobe in a gross internal product (1991, %): an agriculture 42,7, an industry 9,6. Alpine husbandry (grain, a mango, pineapples, citrous); mountain - pascual animal husbandry (a yak, including a musc-ox), a mountain logging. The enterprises on a thorough revision of agricultural raw material and mining. Domestic manufacture of tissues, carpets, a cold steel; art machining of metals, a tree. Manufacture of the electric power 1,5 billion in kw of a h (1990). Length of motorways of 2,5 thousand in km. Export: wood, canned fruit, coal, a musk, a varnish, wax, black lead, an ivory. Foreign tourism, sale of postage stamps. The main{basic} foreign trade partner - India (ok. 95 % of the foreign trade turnover). Monetary unit - ngultrum.
  • BUTANES, colourless gases: normal butane CH3 (CH2) 3CH3 (têèï? 0,5 °S) and isobutane (CH3) 2CHCH3 (têèï? 11,7 °S). Are contained in petroleum and natural gases and in oil-refinery gases. From normal butane receive a butadien, from isobutane - isobutylene. In a mix with propyl hydride are applied as fuel.
  • BUTASHEVICH-PETRASHEVSKY M. Â., see Petrashevskij M.V.
  • BUTENANDT (Butenandt) Adolf (r. 1903), german chemists - organics and the biochemist. For the first time has secured{discharged} in the pure state and synthesized a number{series} of sexual hormones (Estronum, Testosteron-Depotum, Progesteronum, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1939).
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