Friday, June 8, 2007

  • WALTER BACKGROUND DER FOGELVEJDE (Walther von der Vogelweide) (ok. 1170 - ok. 1230), the german poet - minnezinger. Landscape and love lyrics, satirical shpruhi, directed against princely civil strifes and the papacy.
  • VALHALLA, Valgalla (other - skand. Valholl - a hall dead), in the Scandinavian mythology palace Odina where the soldiers who have gorged in battle hit and where they prolong former heroic life.
  • MILLING (preparing room{roller}), deforming in forging rolls of preparations from metal, rubber stocks, plastics materials. With the help of milling receive off-the-shelf components, precise preparations for an extrusion, etc.
  • ROLLS (from a nem. Walze - valok, a roller), the working instrument forge, crushing, etc. machines - 2 cutting, rotated in opposite directions that ensures capture and machining of the material passing between them. The surface of crusher rolls fluted, in forging rolls is present the brook conforming to a profile of a component part.
  • VALLADOLID (Valladolid), city in Spain, an administrative centre prov. Valladolid. 334 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, a chemical industry, nonferrous machine industry; manufacture of jewels. University. It is known from 10 century Church Santa-mary of ac of Antigua (11-14 centuries), church of San Pablo (15 century, in style plateresko), area Plasa framed by porticoes the Major (16 century).
  • CURRENCY (ital. valuta, characters. - cost), 1) monetary unit of any country and its{her} phylum (golden, silver, impregnated-paper); 2) a means for accounts{invoices}, impregnated-paper money, coins, bills, the check plots used in international payments (foreign exchange). See also Convertibility{Reversibility} of currencies.
  • CURRENCY MONOPOLY, exclusive right of the state to operations with a foreign exchange, gold. It is connected to the foreign trade monopoly.
  • CURRENCY SYSTEM WORLD, the form of organization of international currency attitudes{relations} stipulated by development of the world economy and legally fixed by interstate agreements. Its{her} defining elements: national and collective currency units, structure and structure of international merchantable assets (a currency means and stocks of gold), the mechanism of pars of exchange and courses, conditions of the relative{mutual} convertibility{reversibility} of currencies, volume of exchange restrictions, forms of international payments, a mode of international exchange markets and world markets of gold, the status of the interstate currency - credit organizations regulating currency attitudes{relations}. See also the Golden standard, the Gold-value standard, the Jamaican agreement.
  • CURRENCY SYSTEM NATIONAL, a form of organization of currency attitudes{relations} of the state, defined by the national legislation. Its{her} elements: national monetary unit, structure of official gold and exchange currency reserves, the par of exchange and the mechanism fomirovanija the course of exchange, conditions of convertibility{reversibility} of currency, availability or absence of exchange restrictions, the order of external payments of country, a mode of a national exchange market and the market of gold, the status of the national establishments regulating currency attitudes{relations} of country.
  • CURRENCY BLOCS, groupings of the states in which the currency of countries - participants was attached to currency of country - hegemon. Have arisen during a world economic crisis 1929-33 (sterling 1931, dollar 1933, golden 1933-36), were transformed to currency areas.
  • CURRENCY AREAS, the groupings of the states which have been usual in time and after 2-nd world war on the basis of currency blocs. In currency areas the known coordination of currency policy and system of external payments is carried out{conducted}. The main{basic} currency areas - sterling, dollar, a franc area.
  • EXCHANGE RESTRICTIONS, system of state measures, directed on limitation of operations with a foreign exchange, gold, etc. currency values. Are established{set} by a legislative way or administratively; a constituent part of currency policy of the state. Exchange restrictions provide: ban of sale and purchase of a foreign exchange; delivery to its{her} state organs on an official rate; regulation of transfers{translations} and external payments, flight of capital; repatriation of profits. At exchange restrictions currency transactions are focused in central or specially authorized banks. Exchange restrictions are applied as a marginal means against a nonperishable unbalance of calculations with abroad and to pegging the exchange, and also with the purpose of survey of a means for payment of the external indebtedness.
  • CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS, banking operations on exchange markets, the bound with sale and purchase of a foreign exchange. Currency transaction implements on conditions of immediate shipment of currencies ("spot") and in the form of time bargains, i.e. delivery of currency hereafter at the rate, existing at the moment of conclusions of the transaction ("forward"). Urgent currency transactions are carried out{conducted} both for insurance upon exchange risks, and for gamble on a difference between actual and expected courses. A number{series} of currency transactions represents combination of bargains "spot" and "forward".
  • CURRENCY VALUES, values concerning which the state establishes{sets} a restricted mode of the circulation. So, in the Russian Federation to currency values concern: a foreign exchange and the documents of payment expressed in her and valuable papers, precious metals (gold, silver, platinum and platinum metals), natural precious stones in a wet and treated kind{view} (diamonds, ruby, emeralds, sapphires, alexandrites), pearl, except for household jeweller, etc. items from these metals and stones.
  • EXCHANGE CRISIS, aggravation of antagonisms in the currency orb, showing in swings over of courses of exchange, a unbalance of balances of payments, conveyances of the loan capital. Exchange crisis is accompanied by intensifying of state interference in the form of devaluations and revaluation, introduction of exchange restrictions, an implementation obshcheekonomicheskogo character.
  • The COURSE OF EXCHANGE, the price (quotation) of monetary unit of one country, expressed in monetary unit of other country. Currency attitudes{relations} of economically developed countries are based to the "swimming" courses of exchange dependent on a supply and demand on national currencies in the conforming markets.
  • EXCHANGE MARKET, set{combination} of supplies and demands on currencies. Participants of an exchange market: banks, enterprises - exporters and importers, investors, central banks, brokerage offices, etc. financial institutions. Oposreduet international payments.
  • VALJUSHKIS Gediminas (r. 1927), the Lithuanian architect, the deserved architect of Lithuania (1977). Residential district Lazdinaj in Vilnius (1965-66, 1969-73, with co-authors). The lenin premium (1974).
  • VAMPILOV Alexander Valentinovich (1937-72), the Russian playwright. Ostrokonfliktnye moral - psychologic plays: " the Higher son ", " Utinaja a hunt " (both 1970), " in the Past summer in CHulimske " (1972), satirical plays.
  • VAMPIRES (desmodovye), a set of bats. Length of a body 6,5-9 see 3 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics of America. Eat only fresh blood of mammals and birds. As vampires call also representatives of some other sets of bats, napr. False vampires.
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